On this page you will find articles on R&D research.

Sex estimation from photographs of the ilium and humerus using Deep Learning techniques

Published on January 30, 2023

Traditionally, sex estimation is performed by means of numerical/tabular data obtained from manual measurement of the bones of interest. However, the success of a set of Artificial Intelligence techniques, known as Deep Learning (DL) [1], in image analysis problems (mainly through convolutional networks) invites the use of such techniques in the estimation of the biological […]


A quick introduction to Comparative Radiography

Comparative Radiography

Published on July 4, 2022

Comparative radiography is a forensic ID technique based on the comparison of skeletal structures in ante-mortem and postmortem X-ray images. The most commonly employed skeletal structures are located in the skull, chest, and thoracic areas.


A quick introduction to Craniofacial Superimposition

Craniofacial Superimposition

Published on April 12, 2022

Craniofacial Superimposition (CFS) is probably the most challenging SFI method. It involves the superimposition of an image of a skull with a number of ante-mortem face images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence.


Automatic landmark location on human skulls

Craniofacial Superimposition

Published on September 13, 2021

Craniofacial landmarks provide the base for forensic ID methods like facial comparison but their location is a manual and time-consuming task, whose results and accuracy are largely defined by the experience of the expert placing them.


Posest-SFO: automatic skull-face overlay

Craniofacial Superimposition

Published on September 16, 2020

Skeleton·ID has the ability of creating a skull-face overlay (SFO) automatically, provided four or more corresponding landmarks have been located on both the photograph and the skull. This article provides an overview of the technology behind this feature. 


Understanding camera parameters

Craniofacial Superimposition

Published on November 29, 2019

Performing craniofacial superimposition involves superimposing a 3D model of a skull over an ante-mortem photo showing the face of a certain person. The analyst carrying out the task aims to have the skull overlaying the face of the subject by matching its position, pose and size.